Trait Descriptions

Trait descriptions

The cotton QTL database features 152 different QTL trait types. Submitted QTL are not limited to these 152 trait types, and as more QTL are added this number will increase. Below are a summary of the QTL trait types found in the database along with a description of the trait and trait type.

Trait

Description

Trait Type

50% fiber span length (FLsp50) 50% fiber span length Fiber Quality
Average length of all fibers (FLall) Average length of all fibers Fiber Quality
Average length of upper quartile fibers (FLq) Average length of upper quartile fibers Fiber Quality
Boll Coat Weight (BCW) Weight of single boll coat (g). Yield Trait
Boll Diameter(BD) Measured at the widest part of a cotton boll (mm). Yield Trait
Boll Length(BL) The longest part of a cotton boll from top to bottom. Yield Trait
Boll Number (BN) The number of bolls per plant. Yield Trait
Boll Size (BS) Boll size is scored on a scale of 1-5. Yield Trait
Boll Weight (BW) The average weight in grams of a boll (Cotton Marker Database). Yield Trait
Boll locule number (BLN) The number of boll locules. Yield Trait
Canopy Temperature (CT) A drought tolerance trait associated with the temperature of the canopy. Drought Tolerance
Carbon Isotope Ratio (CIR) Ratio of carbon isotopes relating to the plant's ability to use water efficiently. Drought Tolerance
Chlorophyll Chlorophyll content in leaves. Physiological Trait
Color (Fiber color) Sometimes called reflectance or yellowness and is the measurement of the yellow tint in the fibers. Fiber Quality
Days to First Boll (D1B) The average date in days of the first boll opening after sowing. Phenology
Days to First Flower (D1F) The average date in days of the first flower to appear after sowing. Phenology
Disease Incidence (DInc) Calculated as the ratio between the number of infected plants and the total number of plants. Resistance
Disease Index (DI) Calculated according to the formula: DI = [6 (Ni _ i) / (N _ 4)] _ 100, Where i is the disease grade between 0 and 4, Ni, the number of plants with corresponding disease grade and N the number of plants investigated for each RIL. Resistance
Dry Leaf Weight (DLW) The leaf samples were oven dried at 60 _ for 48 h; after attaining constant mass, all were weighed to obtain the dry leaf weight. Physiological Trait
Effective Boll Number (EBN) The number of effective boll per plant Morphological Trait
Effective Fruit Branches (EFB) The total number of fruit branches with bolls. Morphological Trait
Electric Conductivity (EC) The EC of leaves was determined by using a sliced leaf dipped in ddH2O using electric conductivity meter Physiological Trait
Embryonic Protein Percentage (EPP) The percentage of protein in weight present in the embryo. Seed Quality
Evapotranspiration(ET) Used as indicator of the presence or absence of drought tolerance. Resistance
Excised leaf water loss (ELWL) The Excised leaf water loss was calculated using the following formula as by Clarke and McCaig (1982). ELWL = [(Fresh weight - Wilted weight) / Dry weight. Drought Tolerance
Fiber Elongation (FE) Percentage change in length based on the length of the sample prior to tensile stress. Fiber Quality
Fiber Maturity (FM) The extent of development in the secondary walls of the fiber. Fiber Quality
Fiber Strength (FS) The force necessary to break a beard of fibers that are clamped between two sets of jaws and is measured in grams per denier. Fiber Quality
Fiber Uniformity (FU) The ratio of the upper-half of fiber length and the mean length and is expressed as a percentage. Fiber Quality
Fiber fineness (FF) Fiber fineness Fiber Quality
Fiber length (FL) The average length of the longest half of the fibers measured in millimeters (mm). Fiber Quality
Fiber tenacity (FT) Fiber tenacity Fiber Quality
Fiber upper-half mean length (FUHML) Fiber upper-half mean length Fiber Quality
First Fruit Spur Branch number (FFSBN) The number of first fruit spur branch per plant Morphological Trait
First Fruit Spur Height (FFSH) The height of first fruit spur in cm Morphological Trait
Flowering Period (FP) The days of flowering from budding to withering Morphological Trait
Flowering-time (FT) The date of first flower (or matured bud a day before of flowering) emergence was recorded for each individual plants Phenology
Fresh Weight (FW) Five fresh seedlings were weighed for fresh weight Physiological Trait
Fresh shoot weight (ShW) Fresh shoot weight Physiological Trait
Fruit Branch Angle (FBA) Measured as the angle between the stem and fruiting branch recorded for the fifth to eighth fruit branches. Morphological Trait
Fruit Branch Internode Length (FBIL) Calculated by dividing fruit branch length by fruit branch nodes. Morphological Trait
Fruit Branch Length (FBL) Measured as the length between the starting point and the terminal end of fruit branch recorded for the fifth to eighth fruit branches. Morphological Trait
Fruit Branch Nodes (FBN) The average nodes of the fifth to eighth fruit branches. Morphological Trait
Fruit branch number (FBNum) The number of fruiting branches per plant. Morphological Trait
Fruiting branch node (FBNode) The number of fruiting nodes per plant. Morphological Trait
Fusarium Fusarium resistance is a plant's ability to survive or resist infection after inoculation. Resistance
Fuzz color (FC) Fuzz color- white, brown, or green Fiber Quality
Ginning Rate (GR) The gin stand motor was started before cotton was fed into the stand. A 30 W increase in gin stand power indicated the start of ginning. The gin stand motor was stopped when ginning of the sample was completed, the elapsed time was used to calculate the GR Physiological Trait
Gossypol The percentage in weight of gossypol found in the cotton seed. Seed Quality
Harvest Index (HI) The ratio by weight of seedcotton to dry matter produced by one plant. Yield Trait
Height of node of first fruiting branch (HNFFB) A maturity and development trait which measures the height of the first fruiting branch. Morphological Trait
Hull Percentage (HP) The percentage of seed which comprises the hull of the embryo. Seed Quality
Immature fiber content by weight (IF) Immature fiber content by weight Fiber Quality
K/Na ratio (K/Na) The ratio between potassium and sodium concentrations in leaves Physiological Trait
Leaf Color (LC) Based on a scale of 1-3 which ranges the level of greenness in the leaf. Morphological Trait
Leaf Hair (HairL) The amount of hair present on a leaf which can be scored in different ways. Hairiness
Leaf Morphology (LM) Morphological differences between plants leaf size, shape, and the number of lobes in each leaf. Morphological Trait
Linolenic acid content (LA) linolenic acid content (18:3) in seed Seed Quality
Lint Index (LI) The weight of lint obtained from 100 seeds measured in grams. Yield Trait
Lint Number (LN) QTL trait related to the lint number per seed. Yield Trait
Lint Percentage (LP) The ratio by weight of lint to seedcotton. Yield Trait
Lint Weight per Boll(BLW) Lint weight per boll. Yield Trait
Lint Yield (LY) An expression of lint weight in kg per harvested unit area. Yield Trait
Lint color (LC) Lint color- white, brown or green Fiber Quality
Lint per Seed(LS) Lint weight of boll divided by total number of seed per boll Yield Trait
Lint weight per plant (LW) Lint weight per plant Yield Trait
Linters Percent (Lt%) The percentage of linters after acid delinting. Yield Trait
Locules per Boll(LB) 15 bolls were selected randomly from each plant and then the average number of locules of each boll was calculated Yield Trait
Main stem diameter in mm (MSD) Main stem diameter in mm Morphological Trait
Malondialdehyde (MDA) Malondialdehyde content in leaf Physiological Trait
Maximun root length (MRL) Maximun root length Physiological Trait
Micronaire A measure of fiber fineness and maturity accomplished by using a mass of fibers compressed into a space of known volume and air permeability and compressed. Fiber Quality
Nematode Resistance (NemR) Pertains to both reniform and root-knot nematodes and is based on the number of eggs per gram root per plant, and the distribution of root galling index observed. Resistance
Nep number (Nn) Number of neps Fiber Quality
Nep size (NS) Nep size Fiber Quality
Net Ginning Energy (NGE) Calculated by subtracting the idling energy from the total energy, the NGE reflects the energy used to remove fiber from the seed and turn the seed roll, as opposed to the energy used to overcome friction of the mechanical components of the gin stand Physiological Trait
Node of first fruiting branch (NFFB) Used to test plant maturity and development from the main stem node of the first fruiting branch. Morphological Trait
Nulliplex-branch (gb_nb1) Nulliplex-branch, cotton architecture type with flowers arising directly from main-leaf axils on the main stem, which usually does not have fruiting branches Morphological Trait
Number of Buds(NBD) The number of buds per plant Morphological Trait
Number of Fibers per Seed Surface Area (LN_SSA) The frequency or number of fibers per seed surface area. Yield Trait
Number of Nodes (NND) The number of all nodes per plant Morphological Trait
Number of Stem Nodes (Numstemnodes) Described as the number of stem nodes present greater than 1 cm averaged over 5 plants. Morphological Trait
Number of Vegetative Shoot (NV) The number of vegetative shoot Morphological Trait
Number of root forks (RF) Number of root forks Physiological Trait
Number of root tips (RT) Number of root tips Physiological Trait
Oil The percentage in weight of oil found in the cotton seed. Seed Quality
Oleic acid content (OA) oleic acid content (18:1) in seed Seed Quality
Open Bud The presence or absence of a pistil extending out of the bud. Morphological Trait
Osmotic Potential (OP) The plant's ability to adjust to osmotic differences by accumulating solutes in response to a water deficit and is considered a drought tolerance trait. Resistance
Palmitic acid content (PA) palmitic acid content (16:0) in seed Seed Quality
Percent Fiber (PF) The percent of fiber present after ginning. Yield Trait
Perimeter (Fiber Perimeter) A fiber quality trait which relates to fiber strength, length, and micronaire. Fiber Quality
Petal Color (PetCol) Based on a scale of 1-3 which ranges based on the yellowness of the petals. Morphological Trait
Petal Spot (PetSpot) Based on a scale of 1-5 which ranges based on the content of anthocyan present. Morphological Trait
Photoperiodic Flowering (PHFL) The date of flowering of individual plants was recorded during a window of 10 days from July 1 to September 24 of the season that detected start of flowering according to shortening of day length Phenology
Plant Height (PH) Plant height measured in centimeters (cm). Morphological Trait
Pollen Color (PolCol) Based on a scale of 1-3 based on the yellowness of the pollen. Morphological Trait
Protein The percentage in weight of protein found in the cotton seed. Seed Quality
Pubescence Leaf pubescence is based on degrees trichome density. Morphological Trait
RN-Nematode Resistance to reniform nematode Resistance
Ratio of Log (locule number) to Log (boll number) (LB) The calculation of the ratio of the log of locule number to the log of the number of bolls present. Yield Trait
Relative water content (RWC) The RWC of the leaf sample was calculated by using the following formula as by Clark and Townley-Smith (1986). RWC = [(Fresh weight - Dry weight) / (Turgid weight - Dry weight)] _ 100 Drought Tolerance
Root Weight (RW) Used as indicator of the presence or absence of drought tolerance. Resistance
Root length (RL) Root length Physiological Trait
Root surface area (RSA) Root surface area Physiological Trait
Root volumn (RV) Root volumn Physiological Trait
Root/shoot ratio (R/S) R/S = the fresh weight of shoot/the fresh weight of root Physiological Trait
Saturated Leaves Weight (SLW) The sampled leaves were submerged in distilled water overnight and their saturated leaves were weighed Physiological Trait
Seed Cotton Yield per Boll (SCYB) Seed cotton yield per boll was obtained by dividing the seed cotton of the ten bolls per plant by the number of bolls picked from that particular plant Yield Trait
Seed Cotton Yield per Locule(SCYL) Total weight of seed cotton per boll/number of locules per boll Yield Trait
Seed Index (SI) The weight of 100 seeds in grams. Yield Trait
Seed Index Delinted (Sid) The weight of 100 delinted seeds in grams. Yield Trait
Seed Mass (SM) The expression of seed mass in grams per unit area. Yield Trait
Seed Number per Boll (SN) The number of seeds in a boll. Yield Trait
Seed Surface Area (L_SSA) The weight in grams per unit of surface area of the seed (g/cmÊ_). Yield Trait
Seed Surface by Solume (SSA) The total surface of seeds calculated based on volume in cmÊ_. Yield Trait
Seed Volume(SV) Calculated from the displacement in the volume of 30 mL ethanol by the same seed sample in graduated cylinder Yield Trait
Seed Weight (SW) The weight of a seed measured in grams. Yield Trait
Seed Yield(SY) The weight of 100 seeds (grams per plant). Yield Trait
Seedcotton Yield (SCY) An expression of the seedcotton weight in kg per harvested unit area. Yield
Seeds per Locule (SB) Number of locules per boll Yield Trait
Seeds per Locule (SL) Number of seeds per boll Yield Trait
Short Fiber Content (SFC) The percentage of fibers shorter than one-half inch Fiber Quality
Short Fibre (SF) Short fibre is based on the percentage of all fibre in % Fiber Quality
Short Lint Fibers (SLF) The percentage by weight of fiber fuzz 12.7mm or less. Fiber Quality
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) Somatic embryogenesis rate is the number of calli regenerated with somatic embryos divided by the total number of calli Physiological Trait
Stearic acid content (SA) stearic acid content (18:0) in seed Seed Quality
Stem Hair (HairS) The amount of hair present on a stem which can be scored in different ways. Hairiness
Stem Internode Length (SIL) Calculated by dividing stem node length by stem node number. Morphological Trait
Stem Length (SL) Stem length of five fresh seedlings Physiological Trait
Stem Node Length (StemNodeLen) The ratio of plant height to the number of nodes present averaged over 5 plants. Morphological Trait
Stem Nodes Below First Fruiting Branch (StemNodeV) The number of stem nodes present below the first fruiting branch. Morphological Trait
The First Boll Opening (FBP) The period from the first flower blooming to the first boll opening Phenology
The concentration of macronutrient B(B) The concentration of boron in leaves Physiological Trait
The concentration of macronutrient Ca(Ca) The concentration of calcium in leaves Physiological Trait
The concentration of macronutrient Cu(Cu) The concentration of copper in leaves Physiological Trait
The concentration of macronutrient Fe(Fe) The concentration of iron in leaves Physiological Trait
The concentration of macronutrient K(K) The concentration of potassium in leaves Physiological Trait
The concentration of macronutrient Mg(Mg) The concentration of magnesium in leaves Physiological Trait
The concentration of macronutrient Mn(Mn) The concentration of manganese in leaves Physiological Trait
The concentration of macronutrient Na(Na) The concentration of sodium in leaves Physiological Trait
The concentration of macronutrient P(P) The concentration of phosphate in leaves Physiological Trait
The concentration of macronutrient S(S) The concentration of sulfur in leaves Physiological Trait
The concentration of macronutrient Zn(Zn) The concentration of zinc in leaves Physiological Trait
Total Fruit Nodes (TFN) The number of nodes of all the fruit branches. Morphological Trait
Verticillium Wilt (VW) Resistance to VW which allows a plant to survive or resist infection after being inoculated with VW fungus. Resistance
Visible foreign material (VFM) Visible foreign material Fiber Quality
Wall Thickness Described as the thickness of the fiber in the secondary wall. Fiber Quality
Weight Fitness A fiber quality trait measured by an arealometer which measures compressional change in a known unit volume space with a known weighted sample. Fiber Quality
Xanthomonas campestris pv. Malvacearum(Bacterial blight) (Xcm_Resistance) Resistance traits which allow a plant to survive or resist Xcm infection. Resistance
mino Acid (AA) Content of amino acids in cottonseeds. Specifically in this study the content of Leu, Phe, Thr, Val, Met, Ile, and Lys. Seed Quality
whole growth period (WGP) The period from seedling to senescence Phenology